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Applications Note
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2012.01.04 (11:44:59)

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CONTENTS
PREFACE ........................................................................................................................... 6
1. INTRODUCTION.............................................................................................................7
1.1 Diode...........................................................................................................................................................7
1.2 Thyristor .....................................................................................................................................................9
2. TYPE AND POLARITY DESIGNATION........................................................................11
2.1 Designation of the terminals ...................................................................................................................11
2.2 Constructions ..........................................................................................................................................11
2.2.1 General...............................................................................................................................................11
2.2.2 Disc cells ............................................................................................................................................12
2.2.3 PowerBLOCK-Module.........................................................................................................................12
2.2.4 Stud type and flat case constructions .................................................................................................13
3. ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES........................................................................................ 13
3.1 Forward direction ....................................................................................................................................13
3.1.1 Forward off-state current iD .................................................................................................................14
3.1.2 Forward off-state voltage vD................................................................................................................14
3.1.2.1 Repetitive peak forward off-state voltage VDRM ...........................................................................14
3.1.2.2 Non-repetitive peak forward off-state voltage VDSM .....................................................................15
3.1.2.3 Forward direct off-state voltage VD (DC) ........................................................................................15
3.1.3 Forward breakover voltage V(BO) .........................................................................................................16
3.1.4 Open gate forward breakover voltage V(BO)0 .......................................................................................16
3.1.5 Holding current IH ...............................................................................................................................16
3.1.6 Latching current IL ...............................................................................................................................16
3.1.7 On-state current iT, ITAV, ITRMS iF, IFAV, IFRMS .........................................................................................17
3.1.8 On-state voltage vT, vF ........................................................................................................................17
3.1.9 On-state characteristic ........................................................................................................................17
3.1.10 Equivalent line approximation with VT(TO), VF(TO) and rT.....................................................................17
3.1.11 Maximum average on-state current ITAVM, IFAVM ................................................................................18
3.1.12 Maximum RMS on-state current ITRMSM, IFRMSM.................................................................................18
3.1.13 Overload on-state current IT(OV), IF(OV) ...............................................................................................18
3.1.14 Maximum overload on-state current IT(OV)M, IF(OV)M............................................................................19
3.1.15 Surge on-state current ITSM, IFSM .......................................................................................................20
3.1.16 Maximum rated value ∫i²dt.................................................................................................................20
3.2 Reverse direction ....................................................................................................................................21
3.2.1 Reverse current iR ...............................................................................................................................21
3.2.2 Reverse voltage vR.............................................................................................................................21
3.2.2.1 Repetitive peak reverse voltage VRRM..........................................................................................21
3.2.2.2 Non-repetitive peak reverse voltage VRSM ...................................................................................22
3.2.2.3 Direct reverse voltage VR (DC) ....................................................................................................22
3.3 Control properties of thyristors ..............................................................................................................22
3.3.1 Positive gate control...........................................................................................................................22
3.3.1.1 Gate current iG .............................................................................................................................22
Seite 3 von 87
3.3.1.2 Gate voltage VG ...........................................................................................................................22
3.3.1.3 Gate trigger current IGT ................................................................................................................22
3.3.1.4 Gate trigger voltage VGT...............................................................................................................22
3.3.1.5 Gate non-trigger current IGD.........................................................................................................23
3.3.1.6 Gate non-trigger voltage VGD .......................................................................................................23
3.3.1.7 Control characteristic ...................................................................................................................23
3.3.1.8 Control circuit..............................................................................................................................23
3.3.1.9 Minimum duration of the trigger pulse tgmin ..................................................................................26
3.3.1.10 Maximum permissible peak trigger current................................................................................26
3.4 Carrier storage effect and switching characteristics ...........................................................................27
3.4.1 Turn-on...............................................................................................................................................27
3.4.1.1 Diode...........................................................................................................................................27
3.4.1.1.1 Peak value of the forward recovery voltage VFRM.................................................................27
3.4.1.1.2 On-state recovery time tfr......................................................................................................28
3.4.1.2 Thyristor ......................................................................................................................................28
3.4.1.2.1 Gate controlled delay time tgd ...............................................................................................28
3.4.1.2.2 Critical rate of rise of the on-state current (di/dt)cr...............................................................29
3.4.1.2.3 Repetitive turn-on current IT(RC)M ..........................................................................................29
3.4.1.2.4 Critical rate of rise of off-state voltage (dv/dt)cr ...................................................................30
3.4.2 Turn-off...............................................................................................................................................30
3.4.2.1 Recovery charge Qr .....................................................................................................................31
3.4.2.2 Peak reverse recovery current IRM...............................................................................................32
3.4.2.3 Reverse recovery time trr .............................................................................................................34
3.4.2.4 Turn-off time tq .............................................................................................................................34
3.5 Power dissipation (losses) ......................................................................................................................37
3.5.1 Total power dissipation Ptot .................................................................................................................37
3.5.2 Off-state losses PD, PR ........................................................................................................................37
3.5.3 On-state losses PT, PF.........................................................................................................................37
3.5.4 Switching losses PTT, PFT+PRQ ............................................................................................................38
3.5.4.1 Turn-on losses PTT, PFT ...............................................................................................................39
3.5.4.2 Turn-off losses PRQ ......................................................................................................................39
3.5.5 Gate dissipation PG .............................................................................................................................40
3.6 Insulation test voltage VISOL.....................................................................................................................40
4. THERMAL PROPERTIES............................................................................................. 41
4.1 Temperatures...........................................................................................................................................41
4.1.1 Junction temperature Tvj, Tvj max ..........................................................................................................41
4.1.2 Case temperature TC...........................................................................................................................41
4.1.3 Heatsink temperature TH.....................................................................................................................41
4.1.4 Cooling medium temperature TA.........................................................................................................42
4.1.5 Junction operating temperature range Tvjop ........................................................................................42
4.1.6 Storage temperature range Tstg...........................................................................................................42
4.2 Thermal resistances................................................................................................................................42
4.2.1 Internal thermal resistance RthJC .........................................................................................................42
4.2.2 Thermal transfer resistance RthCH .......................................................................................................42
4.2.3 Heatsink thermal resistance RthCA .......................................................................................................42
4.2.4 Total thermal resistance RthJA .............................................................................................................43
4.2.5 Transient internal thermal resistance ZthJC..........................................................................................43
4.2.6 Transient heatsink thermal resistance ZthCA........................................................................................43
4.2.7 Total transient thermal resistance ZthJA ...............................................................................................43
4.3 Cooling .....................................................................................................................................................44
4.3.1 Natural air cooling ...............................................................................................................................44
4.3.2 Forced air cooling...............................................................................................................................44
4.3.3 Water cooling .....................................................................................................................................44
4.3.4 Oil cooling...........................................................................................................................................44
Seite 4 von 87
5. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES ...................................................................................... 45
5.1 Tightening torque ....................................................................................................................................45
5.2 Clamping force ........................................................................................................................................45
5.3 Creepage distance...................................................................................................................................45
5.4 Humidity classification ............................................................................................................................45
5.5 Vibration ...................................................................................................................................................45
5.6 UL-registration.........................................................................................................................................45
6. NOTES FOR APPLICATIONS......................................................................................46
6.1 Case non-rupture current ........................................................................................................................46
6.2 Thermal load cycling...............................................................................................................................46
6.3 Parallel connection..................................................................................................................................47
6.4 Series connection....................................................................................................................................49
6.5 Pulsed Power ...........................................................................................................................................51
6.5.1 Applications with DC ...........................................................................................................................51
6.5.2 Current rise time at turn-on .................................................................................................................51
6.5.3 Zero crossing of current and voltage during turn-on...........................................................................52
6.5.4 Turn-off with a high di/dt against a negative voltage ..........................................................................52
7. PROTECTION...............................................................................................................54
7.1 Overvoltage protection ............................................................................................................................54
7.1.1 Individual snubbering (RC-snubber) ...................................................................................................54
7.1.2 Input snubbering for AC-controllers ....................................................................................................57
7.1.3 Supply snubbers for line commutated converters...............................................................................58
7.2 Overcurrent protection ............................................................................................................................63
7.2.1 Short-term protection with superfast semiconductor fuses.................................................................63
7.2.1.1 Selection of fuses ........................................................................................................................63
7.2.2 Further protection concepts: short-term protection of high power semiconductors............................65
7.2.2.1 High speed DC-circuit breakers...................................................................................................65
7.2.2.3 Line side circuit breaker...............................................................................................................66
7.2.2.4 Blocking of trigger pulses (gate lock)...........................................................................................66
7.2.3 Long-term protection ...........................................................................................................................66
7.2.4 Fully rated protection..........................................................................................................................66
7.3 Dynamic current limiting with inductors in the load circuit.................................................................66
7.4 Reduction of interference pulses in the gate circuit ............................................................................67
8. MOUNTING...................................................................................................................69
8.1 Disc cases ................................................................................................................................................69
8.1.1 Mounting of disc cells..........................................................................................................................69
8.1.2 Positioning the heatsinks ....................................................................................................................73
8.1.3 Connection of busbars ........................................................................................................................73
8.1.4 Connection of the control leads ..........................................................................................................74
8.2 Stud cases................................................................................................................................................74
Seite 5 von 87
8.2.1 Mounting stud cases ...........................................................................................................................74
8.2.2 Positioning the heatsinks ....................................................................................................................75
8.2.3 Connection of busbars ........................................................................................................................75
8.2.4 Connection of the control leads ..........................................................................................................75
8.3 Flat base cases........................................................................................................................................75
8.3.1 Mounting flat base devices..................................................................................................................75
8.3.2 Positioning the heatsinks ....................................................................................................................76
8.3.3 Connection of busbars ........................................................................................................................76
8.3.4 Connection of the control leads ..........................................................................................................76
8.4 PowerBLOCK-Modules ............................................................................................................................76
8.4.1 Mounting PowerBLOCK-modules .......................................................................................................76
8.4.2 Positioning the heatsinks ....................................................................................................................76
8.4.3 Connection of busbars ........................................................................................................................77
8.4.4 Connection of the control leads ..........................................................................................................77
9. MAINTENANCE............................................................................................................ 77
10. TYPE DESIGNATION .................................................................................................78
10.1 Disc cell ..................................................................................................................................................78
10.2 PowerBLOCK-module...........................................................................................................................79
11. CONNECTION TOPOLOGIES.................................................................................... 80
A1. ABBREVIATIONS ...................................................................................................... 82
A2. LIST OF FIGURES .....................................................................................................84
A3. LIST OF TABLES.......................................................................................................86
A4. CONDITIONS OF USE ............................................................................................... 87

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